King Hermit

the official King Hermit message board
 
HomeHome  FAQFAQ  MemberlistMemberlist  UsergroupsUsergroups  RegisterRegister  Log in  

Share | 
 

 I heard through the grapevine

Go down 
AuthorMessage
Dale
Admin
Admin
avatar

Male
Number of posts : 5959
Age : 35
Karma : 50
Hermit Points : 12391

PostSubject: I heard through the grapevine   Tue Feb 24, 2009 8:45 pm

That grapes grow on vines, please confirm?

_________________
Back to top Go down
View user profile http://www.kinghermit.com
Sound Foundry
Dangerous
Dangerous
avatar

Male
Number of posts : 2735
Age : 37
Karma : 17
Hermit Points : 4360

PostSubject: Re: I heard through the grapevine   Tue Feb 24, 2009 11:49 pm

Yes.

A grape is the non-climacteric fruit that grows on the perennial and deciduous woody vines of the genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or used for making jam, juice, jelly, vinegar, wine, grape seed extracts, raisins, and grape seed oil. Grapes are also used in some kinds of candy.

Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics show the cultivation of grapes. Scholars believe that ancient Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans also grew grapes both for eating and wine production. Later, the growing of grapes spread to Europe, North Africa, and eventually to the United States. Native grapes in North America grew along streams, however, the first cultivated grapes in California were grown by Spanish Franciscan Friars, looking to make a sacramental wine for the California Missions. The first table grape vineyard in California is credited to an early settler by the name of William Wolfskill in the Los Angeles area. As more settlers came to California, more and more varieties of European grapes were introduced. Some for winemaking, others for raisins and some for eating fresh.

Today in the United States, approximately 98 percent of commercially grown table grapes are from California. (California Table Grape Commission).

Grapes grow in clusters of 6 to 300, and can be crimson, black, dark blue, yellow, green and pink. "White" grapes are actually green in color, and are evolutionarily derived from the red grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins which are responsible for the color of red grapes. Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in red grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines.

Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as:

* Vitis labrusca, the North American table and grape juice grapevines (including the concord cultivar), sometimes used for wine. Native to the Eastern United States and Canada.
* Vitis riparia, a wild vine of North America, sometimes used for winemaking and for jam. Native to the entire Eastern U.S. and north to Quebec.
* Vitis rotundifolia, the muscadines, used for jams and wine. Native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico.
* Vitis amurensis, the most important Asian species.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 75,866 square kilometres of the world are dedicated to grapes. Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, and 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural". The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year.

The following table of top wine-producers shows the corresponding areas dedicated to grapes for wine making:
Country Area Dedicated
Spain 11,750 kmē
France 8,640 kmē
Italy 8,270 kmē
Turkey 8,120 kmē
United States 4,150 kmē
Iran 2,860 kmē
Romania 2,480 kmē
Portugal 2,160 kmē
Argentina 2,080 kmē
Australia 1,642 kmē
Lebanon 1,122 kmē
Top Ten Grapes Producers — 11 June 2008
Country Production (Tonnes) Footnote
Italy 8519418
France 6500000 F
People's Republic of China 6250000 F
United States 6105080
Spain 6013000
Turkey 3923040
Iran 3000000 F
Argentina 2900000 F
Chile 2350000 F
India 1667700
World 7501872 A
No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial/Semi-official/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official, semi-official or estimates);

Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision

Seedless grapes

Seedlessness is a highly desirable subjective quality in table grape selection, and seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction. It is, however, an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques.

There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, and essentially all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, and Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are currently more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Reliance and Venus, have been specifically cultivated for hardiness and quality in the relatively cold climates of north-eastern United States and southern Ontario.

An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical content of grape seeds (see Health claims, below).

Raisins, currants, and sultanas

In most of Europe, dried grapes are universally referred to as 'raisins' or the local equivalent. In the UK, three different varieties are recognized, forcing the EU to use the term "Dried vine fruit" in official documents.

A raisin is any dried grape. While raisin is a French loanword, the word in French refers to the fresh fruit; grappe (from which the English grape is derived) refers to the bunch (as in une grappe de raisins).

A currant is a dried Zante grape, the name being a corruption of the French raisin de Corinthe (Corinth grape). Note also that currant has come to refer also to the blackcurrant and redcurrant, two berries unrelated to grapes.

A sultana was originally a raisin made from a specific type of grape of Turkish origin, but the word is now applied to raisins made from common grapes and chemically treated to resemble the traditional sultana.

Health claims
French Paradox

Comparing diets among western countries, researchers have discovered that although the French tend to eat higher levels of animal fat, surprisingly the incidence of heart disease remains low in France, a phenomenon named the French Paradox and thought to occur from protective benefits of regularly consuming red wine. Apart from potential benefits of alcohol itself, including reduced platelet aggregation and vasodilation, polyphenols (e.g., resveratrol) mainly in the grape skin provide other suspected health benefits, such as:

* alteration of molecular mechanisms in blood vessels, reducing susceptibility to vascular damage
* decreased activity of angiotensin, a systemic hormone causing blood vessel constriction that would elevate blood pressure
* increased production of the vasodilator hormone, nitric oxide (endothelium-derived relaxing factor)

Although adoption of wine consumption is not recommended by some health authorities, a significant volume of research indicates moderate consumption, such as one glass of red wine a day for women and two for men, may confer health benefits. Emerging evidence is that wine polyphenols like resveratrol provide physiological benefit whereas alcohol itself may have protective effects on the cardiovascular system.

Resveratrol

Grape phytochemicals such as resveratrol, a polyphenol antioxidant, have been positively linked to inhibiting cancer, heart disease, degenerative nerve disease, viral infections and mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease.

Protection of the genome through antioxidant actions may be a general function of resveratrol. In laboratory studies, resveratrol bears a significant transcriptional overlap with the beneficial effects of calorie restriction in heart, skeletal muscle and brain. Both dietary interventions inhibit gene expression associated with heart and skeletal muscle aging, and prevent age-related heart failure.

Resveratrol is the subject of several human clinical trials, among which the most advanced is a one year dietary regimen in a Phase III study of elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Synthesized by many plants, resveratrol apparently serves antifungal and other defensive properties. Dietary resveratrol has been shown to modulate the metabolism of lipids and to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets.

Resveratrol is found in wide amounts among grape varieties, primarily in their skins and seeds which, in muscadine grapes, have about one hundred times higher concentration than pulp. Fresh grape skin contains about 50 to 100 micrograms of resveratrol per gram.

Anthocyanins and other phenolics

Anthocyanins tend to be the main polyphenolics in red grapes whereas flavan-3-ols (e.g., catechins) are the more abundant phenolic in white varieties. Total phenolic content, an index of dietary antioxidant strength, is higher in red varieties due almost entirely to anthocyanin density in red grape skin compared to absence of anthocyanins in white grape skin. It is these anthocyanins that are attracting the efforts of scientists to define their properties for human health. Phenolic content of grape skin varies with cultivar, soil composition, climate, geographic origin, and cultivation practices or exposure to diseases, such as fungal infections.

Red wine offers health benefits more so than white because many beneficial compounds are present in grape skin, and only red wine is fermented with skins. The amount of fermentation time a wine spends in contact with grape skins is an important determinant of its resveratrol content. Ordinary non-muscadine red wine contains between 0.2 and 5.8 mg/L, depending on the grape variety, because it is fermented with the skins, allowing the wine to absorb the resveratrol. By contrast, a white wine contains lower phenolic contents because it is fermented after removal of skins.

Wines produced from muscadine grapes may contain more than 40 mg/L, an exceptional phenolic content. In muscadine skins, ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and trans-resveratrol are major phenolics. Contrary to previous results, ellagic acid and not resveratrol is the major phenolic in muscadine grapes.

Seed constituents

Since the 1980s, biochemical and medical studies have demonstrated significant antioxidant properties of grape seed oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Together with tannins, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, these seed constituents display inhibitory activities against several experimental disease models, including cancer, heart failure and other disorders of oxidative stress.

Grape seed oil from crushed seeds is used in cosmeceuticals and skincare products for many perceived health benefits. Grape seed oil is notable for its high contents of tocopherols (vitamin E), phytosterols, and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid.

Concord grape juice

Commercial juice products from Concord grapes have been applied in medical research studies, showing potential benefits against the onset stage of cancer, platelet aggregation and other risk factors of atherosclerosis, loss of physical performance and mental acuity during aging and hypertension in humans.
Back to top Go down
View user profile http://www.thesoundfoundry.co.uk
Sound Foundry
Dangerous
Dangerous
avatar

Male
Number of posts : 2735
Age : 37
Karma : 17
Hermit Points : 4360

PostSubject: Re: I heard through the grapevine   Tue Feb 24, 2009 11:50 pm

I hope this answers your query
Back to top Go down
View user profile http://www.thesoundfoundry.co.uk
Dale
Admin
Admin
avatar

Male
Number of posts : 5959
Age : 35
Karma : 50
Hermit Points : 12391

PostSubject: Re: I heard through the grapevine   Wed Feb 25, 2009 7:44 pm

You better not have google'd that, i'll know!

_________________
Back to top Go down
View user profile http://www.kinghermit.com
Sound Foundry
Dangerous
Dangerous
avatar

Male
Number of posts : 2735
Age : 37
Karma : 17
Hermit Points : 4360

PostSubject: Re: I heard through the grapevine   Wed Feb 25, 2009 8:59 pm

Just demonstrating my superior intellect to you Plebs Rolling Eyes
Back to top Go down
View user profile http://www.thesoundfoundry.co.uk
Muldoon
Dangerous
Dangerous
avatar

Male
Number of posts : 2504
Age : 36
Karma : 19
Hermit Points : 4082

PostSubject: Re: I heard through the grapevine   Wed Feb 25, 2009 9:37 pm

stop wine'ing the both of you or i will get angry and make it the grapes of wrath

boo-yah
Back to top Go down
View user profile http://www.myspace.com/damagelimitationrecords
Rig
Stalker
Stalker
avatar

Male
Number of posts : 1493
Age : 98
Karma : 7
Hermit Points : 1628

PostSubject: Re: I heard through the grapevine   Wed Feb 25, 2009 10:09 pm

Hi John, Rig here

just wondered if you might know best practice for someone like me who would be interested in home cultivation of grapes and other such vegetation, nothing large scale, enough to keep me in stock 365 days a year?
Back to top Go down
View user profile http://www.myspace.com/moschakis
Sound Foundry
Dangerous
Dangerous
avatar

Male
Number of posts : 2735
Age : 37
Karma : 17
Hermit Points : 4360

PostSubject: Re: I heard through the grapevine   Thu Feb 26, 2009 12:25 am

I certainly would Sir Rigbert.

First decide what method of cultivation you plan to adopt. Alan Rowe's book covers most of the common methods - but not all documented methods. Then decide on the direction and spacing of the rows and the distance between plants. There has been considerable discussion about north/south versus east/west planting and north/south is said to give the best ripening. But there are two other important factors to consider:

* the shape of the plot to be planted - rows may lend themselves more naturally to one direction or other and
* the prevailing wind.

Having the wind blow between the rows is said to produce more rapid drying and that this is a major factor in disease prevention - high humidity being ideal for many diseases. If the choice is between less ripe and disease free or more ripe and infected, most people would oft for the former. The prevailing wind on my site is from the west and I grow east/west rows - I cannot comment on whether the grapes are less ripe or more diseased because I do not have any north/south rows with which to compare - however, it works!

Probably the most significant factor affecting ripeness on a small site is birds! Once the grapes are approaching ripe the birds will move in and can strip a small vineyard almost overnight. If you see this happening you have little choice but to harvest the grapes (whatever their ripeness) or loose them. Netting is the only real solution on a small site, and this is comparatively expensive - more expensive than the vines themselves! On the other hand if you plan to have only a few vines the netting is not a major investment and it is not too onerous a job to cover the vines just before the harvest and remove them when ready to pick.

Having decided a layout - including provision for nets - simply dig a hole and pop the vines in and spread the roots. If your ground is light and liable to dry out plant deep (200mm or eight inches at least); if it is the opposite plant shallow (but not less than 50 mm or two inches) and even consider raising the ground by 150mm (six inches) or so if that is possible and plant in this. Grab hold of the roots at the base of the vine and cut off what ever sticks out of your hand so that the roots remaining on the plant are uniform and each about 100 to 150mm (four to six inches) long. If you have wires in place fix the vine to the wire at the required planting depth; if you intend to use a cane to support the young plant put it in the hole first then arrange the plant roots around it. A little mound in the bottom of the hole can help spread the roots. Do not add fertiliser to the planting hole. The aim is to encourage the roots to go and look for water and nutrients not to laze around where the living is easy. Finally, back fill the hole and firm in as you go.

Early spring is the time to plant. Growth normally starts in late April or early May and the plant should be comfortably settled before this. A warm spell in late February or early March is probably best. But not if the ground is frozen. Your vines will be posted as near as possible to the date you specify but again are best not lifted from frozen ground.
Back to top Go down
View user profile http://www.thesoundfoundry.co.uk
Sponsored content




PostSubject: Re: I heard through the grapevine   

Back to top Go down
 
I heard through the grapevine
Back to top 
Page 1 of 1
 Similar topics
-
» Anyone heard of Sarepta?
» Eddie James anybody?
» Reb Beach Says That Kirk Hammett Is "One Of The Worst Guitar Players I've Ever Heard"
» Have you heard from?
» John Mayer Like you've never heard him before w/Steve Jordan

Permissions in this forum:You cannot reply to topics in this forum
King Hermit :: Archives :: John the Agony Aunt *RETIRED*-
Jump to: